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Study of Elemental Composition of Particulate matter (PM2.5) and Health Risks Assessment in the Capital City of Sana’a during the period of 2016 – 2018

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Study of Elemental Composition of Particulate matter (PM2.5) and Health Risks Assessment in the Capital City of Sana’a during the period of 2016 – 2018

S.J of NATEC, No.2, November, 2023. National Reference Serial Number: 255 – 2022

 

N.A. AL-Sowaidi, Z. Eadan

National Atomic Energy Commission of Yemen (NATEC)-Sana’a

Abstract:

This research presents a study of elemental compositions of Fine Particulate matter (PM2.5) in atmospheric air and estimates the enrichment factor and  presents assessments for the health risks caused by exposure to elemental compositions of PM2.5 for children and adults via inhilation. This study was conducted in the Capitel City of Sana’ ( Al-Zubairy Street and Haddah Region) during the period of 2016-2018 and, nuclear technique (PIXE: Proton Induced X-Ray Emission) has been used to measure the concentrations of chemical elements present in (PM2.5) samples.

The results have shown that the major elements in PM2.5 during the study period were crustal elements (Natural elments) Si, Ca, K, Ti, Mn, and Fe, where their percentages 89.6%, 75%, 83.9% of total elemental concentrations of PM2.5 in the period of 2016, 2017, 2018 respectively. While the percentages of the anthropogrnic elements Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Sr, Br, and  S in PM2.5 were 8.8% in 2016, 23.4% in 2017, and  14.7% in 2018. The results also show that the concentration of Sulfur ( anthropogenic source) in PM2.5 was higher than other anthropogenic elements in the period of study.

On the other hand, the sources of these elements in the fine particulate matter PM2.5 in the ambient atmosphere was defined by using the estimation of Enrichment Factor (EF). The results of enrichment factor have shown that the main sources for Br, S, Pb and Zn was anthropogenic source as result of human activity and the main source of Si, K, Sr, Ti, Mn, Ni, Ca was natural and almost from the crustal that caused by seasonal dust storms in the region.

Furthermore, the daily average dose (ADDinh) as result of exposure to heavy elements ( Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in PM2.5 via inhalation in 2016 was higher than in 2017 and 2018. The value of total non-carcinogenic hazard Factor (HQ) for all heavy elements was lower than one (HQ<1) in whole period of study. Therefore, there was not probablity for significant adverse health risks as a result of exposure to PM2.5 in the period and region of study.

Keywords: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Elemental Composition, Enrichment Factor, non-carcinogenic hazard index.

2-30112023-1-11 SJ of NATEC

 

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