NATEC

A Study of atmospheric air pollution and health risks resulting by Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 and associated black Carbon in the Capital City of Sana’a during the period of 2016 to 2019

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A Study of atmospheric air pollution and health risks resulting by Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 and associated black Carbon in the Capital City of Sana’a during the period of 2016 to 2019

S.J of NATEC, No.2, November, 2023. National Reference Serial Number: 255 – 2022

 

Z. Eadan, N.A. AL-Sowaidi, Sh. A. Thabet, M. Mahmoud

National Atomic Energy Commission of Yemen (NATEC)-Sana’a

Abstract:

This research presents a study of atmospheric air pollution with fine particulate matter PM2.5 of diameter less than 2.5µm (PM2.5) and the associated black carbon, in the Capital City of Sana’a. The study was conducted in two locations ( Al-Zubairy street and Haddah region) during the period of May-2016 to Dec-2016 and May-2017 to May-2019, by quantifying PM2.5 and associated black carbon, calculating the air quality index and estimating the health risks to adults and children exposed to the PM2.5. The results showed that the annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and black carbon were within the recommended limits, exception in the year 2016, due to Sudden and extreme global climate changes occurred in 2016, according to a report by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In 2016, about (47%) of the black carbon concentrations were high, and the mean concentration of PM2.5 was, 72.83 µg/m3, about double of recommended level. While in the period of May 2017 to 2019, the annual mean concentrations of PM2.5 and black carbon were about 30.85 µg/m3 and 3 µg/m3 for each, respectively, and the black carbon ratio to PM2.5 particles was about 10%. In general, the results showed that the PM2.5 concentrations in the period of May to August (summer season) are higher than in other seasons, due to the seasonal sand storms that the Arabian Peninsula, including our country, is exposed to. The results also showed an increase the black carbon concentration in the period of August to December compared, due to the lack of rain in this period and increase in wind speed that transports PM2.5. Also, black carbon concentration decreased from 2016 to 2019, whether in terms of the annual or monthly mean concentration.

The results showed that the assessing of air quality index (AQI) and health risks according to HQ factor and Average Daily Dose (ADDinh) received of exposure to of PM2.5 via inhalation for both adults and children were in accepted level, exception in the year 2016 were bad.  In 88% of 2016, (ADDinh) and HQ factor were higher than what is recommended, of which 50% increased more than twice of the recommended level. While in the period from May 2017 to 2019, the ADDinh and risk factor were within the recommended level, exception of about 11% of this period: during Aug 2017, Jul 2018, Feb and Apr 2019. The best period for air quality was recorded in the year 2018 that can be used to establish guidance levels of air quality in the Capital City of Sana’a.

 Keywords: Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5, Black Carbon, Air Quality Index (AQI), Average Daily Dose (ADD), Hazard Quotient HQ.

2-30112023-54-70 SJ of NATEC

 

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